Wednesday, December 5, 2007

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Magyarization or Magyarisation (or "Hungarization", "Hungarianization" or "Hungarianisation", etc.) is a common designator applied to a number of ethnic assimilation policies implemented by various Hungarian authorities at various times. These policies aimed at imposing or maintaining the dominance of Hungarian language and culture in Hungarian-ruled regions by encouraging or compelling (often by forcible means) people of other ethnic groups to adopt the Hungarian language and culture, and to develop a Hungarian identity.

Origin of the term
The term is also sometimes used to refer to broader ethnic discrimination, which was used as a rationale for Magyarization. From the Hungarian point of view, historically notable personalities that came from Magyarized families were Hungarian.

Magyarization in broader sense
The term Magyarization is usually used in regards to the national policies implemented by the government of the Kingdom of Hungary, which was part of the Habsburg Empire. The onset of this process dates to the late 18th century The policies of Magyarization aimed to make the fluency in Hungarian language a requirement for access to basic government services such as local administration, education, and justice.

Magyarization in the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary
The first Hungarian government after the Ausgleich, the 1867–1871 liberal regime led by Count Gyula Andrássy and sustained by Ferenc Deák and his followers, passed the 1868 Nationality Act, that declared "all citizens of Hungary form, politically, one nation, the indivisible unitary Hungarian nation (nemzet), of which every citizen of the country, whatever his personal nationality (nemzetiség), is a member equal in rights." The Education Act, passed the same year, shared this view as the Magyars simpy being primus inter pares ("first among equals"). At this time ethnic minorities "de jure" had a great deal of cultural and linguistic autonomy, including in education, religion, and local government.). These empty lands were repopulated, by administrative measures adopted by the Vienna Court especially during the 18th century, by Hungarians and Slovaks from the northern part of the Kingdom that avoided the devastation (see also Royal Hungary), Swabians, Serbs (Serbs were majority in most southern parts of the Pannonian Plain during Ottoman rule, i.e. before those Habsburg administrative measures), Croats and Romanians. The result of this migration was that on a large swath of land, roughly between Kecskemét and the southern border areas, various ethnic groups lived side by side (this ethnic heterogeneity is preserved until today in certain parts of Vojvodina, Bačka and Banat). After 1867, Hungarian became the lingua franca on this territory in the interaction between ethnic communities, and individuals who were born in mixed marriages between two non-Magyars often grew a full-fledged allegiance to the Hungarian nation (the best-known example being Sándor Petőfi, Hungarian national poet born from a Serbo-Slovak marriage). Since Latin was the official language until 1842 and the country was directly governed from Vienna (which excluded any large-scale governmental assimilation policy from the Hungarian side before the 1867 Ausgleich), the factor of spontaneous assimilation should be given due weight in any analysis relating to the demographic tendencies of the Kingdom of Hungary in the 19th century.

State policy and ethnic relations
Although the policy of Magyarisation was mainly pursued in the form of discrimination (see the sections below), the measures were backed by the state police and secret police One of the incidents that shocked the European public opinion was the Černová massacre in 1907.

Violent oppression
Schools funded by churches and communes had the right to provide education in minority languages. These church-funded schools, however, were mostly founded before 1867, that is, in different socio-political circumstances. Clause 38 of the 1868 law

The central part of the Kingdom of Hungary was colonized with settlers belonging to different nationalities in the 18th century. Colonization was implemented in the Dunántúl consider that Count Grassalkovich settled Slovaks and Rusyns among Hungarians with the goal to increase number of Hungarians. Separated from their main ethnic territory in Slovakia and Carpathian Ruthenia, these two groups would be easily assimilated by the Hungarians. It is evident that most of the Slovaks of Roman Catholic faith that were settled in Vojvodina were later assimilated into the Hungarians, while those that were Protestants retained their Slovak ethnicity.
The settling in of Hungarians into the region continued until the end of the First World War. The statistics for 1880-1900 period show that the ordinary population growth in the Kingdom of Hungary for this period was +10.3%. However, the comparison between population growth of Serbs and Hungarians in the cities of Vojvodina show that Serb population growth was -19.5%, while Hungarian population growth was +105.2%. The last number, however, indicate both, colonization and Magyarization of non-Hungarians from the area.

The census system of the post-1867 Kingdom of Hungary was unfavourable to nationalities. According to the 1874 election law, which remained unchanged until 1918, only the upper 5.9% of whole population had voting rights. That high census effectively excluded almost the whole peasantry and the working class from the political life. The percentage of low-income people was somewhat higher among the nationalities than among the Magyars, except the Germans who were generally richer.
In 1900, nearly 33% of the deputies were elected by less than 100 and close upon 66% of the deputies were elected by less than 1000 votes. The Magyars who gave the 54.5% of the whole population (in Hungary proper) had 60.2% majority in the electorate. Ethnic Germans participated with 10.4% in population and 13.0% in the electorate. The participation of other ethnic groups was as follows: Slovaks (10.7% in population, 10.4% in the electorate), Romanians (16.1% in population, 9.9% in the electorate), Rusyns (2.5% in population, 1.7% in the electorate), Croats (1.1% in population, 1.0% in the electorate), Serbs (2.2% in population, 1.4% in the electorate), and others (2.2% in population, 1.4% in the electorate).
Officially, Hungarian electoral laws haven't contained any legal discrimination based on nationality or language. The high census wasn't uncommon in other European countries in the 1860s but later the countries of Western-Europe gradually lowered and at last abolished their censi. That never happened in the Kingdom of Hungary, although electoral reform was one of the main topic of political debates in the last decades before WW1.

Magyarization Names
As a result of the Magyarization policy
People moved chiefly for economic reasons (labour migration) and, until 1914, 25% of the emigrants returned (this process was stopped by World War I). The majority of the emigrants came from the most indigent social groups, especially from the agrarian sector. Almost 530,000 people left the country between 1905 and 1907, which shows a direct connection between the U.S.'s trade fluctuation and Hungary's developing stages (the living standard of the peasantry, decline of agrarian movements, and even the Phylloxera plague).

The Jewish population of the Kingdom of Hungary may have been the only minority to actively embrace Magyarization, because it saw it as an opportunity for assimilation without conceding their religion. Stephen Roth writes, "Hungarian Jews were opposed to Zionism because they hoped that somehow they could achieve equality with other Hungarian citizens, not just in law but in fact, and that they could be integrated into the country as Hungarian Israelites. The word 'Israelite' (Hungarian: Izraelita) denoted only religious affiliation and was free from the ethnic or national connotations usually attached to the term 'Jew', which could therefore be regarded as a derogatory. Hungarian Jews attained remarkable achievements in business, culture and less frequently even in politics. But even the most successful Jews were not fully accepted by the majority of the Magyars as one of their kind — as the events following the Nazi invasion of the country in WW II so tragically demonstrated."

Magyarization Jews
As a result of the forced Magyarization policy in the Kingdom of Hungary, the Slovaks were a culturally, politically, etc. decimated nation. Although the share of Slovaks within the electorate (10,4%) largely reflected their weight in the total population of Hungary proper (10,7%) Slovaks had extremely marginal representation in the parliament (0 or 1 deputy out of 420 MPs). Although at the time of the Ausgleich there were more than one thousand Slovak elementary schools, their number was gradually reduced to 322 until 1918. Slovaks had no institutions, offices, judges, they were often prevented from voting

Magyarization in Upper Hungary

1844 - Hungarian is gradually introduced for all civil records (kept at local parishes until 1895). German became an official language again after the 1848 revolution, but the laws reverted in 1881 yet again. From 1836 to 1881, 14,000 families had their name Magyarized in the area of Banat alone.
1898 - Simon Telkes publishes the book "How to Magyarize family names".
1897 - The Bánffy law of the villages is ratified. According to this law, all officially used village names in the Hungarian Kingdom had to be in Hungarian language.
1907 - The Apponyi educational law made Hungarian a compulsory subject in all schools in the Kingdom of Hungary. This also extended to confessional and communal schools, which had the right to provide instruction in a minority language as well. "All pupils regardless of their native language must be able to express their thoughts in Hungarian both in spoken and in written form at the end of fourth grade [~ at the age of 10 or 11]" See also

Tuesday, December 4, 2007

Hills District is a general, but unofficial, term for the north-western suburbs of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. The Hills District is also referred to as The Hills. These suburbs are generally located within the local government area of Baulkham Hills Shire but parts of the City of Parramatta. City of Blacktown and Hornsby Shire are also included in the area that is given the appellation "Hills District".
It is so called for its characteristically comparatively hilly topography, and the fact that several of its suburbs have the word 'Hills' in their names, such as Pennant Hills, Castle Hill, West Pennant Hills and Baulkham Hills.
The Hills District is characterised by its relatively affluent households, usually families, living in low-density housing. It is the most rapidly growing region of Sydney.
The regional designation is a largely artificial construct and actual suburbs and localities that are considered to be in "the Hills" can be somewhat amorphous and varies according to who is doing the listing. For example the Hills District Historical Society restricts its remit to the Baulkham Hills Shire local government area. However notwithstanding this, suburbs or parts of suburbs that appear in all or some published listings of the "Hills District" such as Yellow Pages, local newspapers and businesses include: Baulkham Hills, Beaumont Hills, Bella Vista, Carlingford, Castle Hill, Cheltenham, Cherrybrook, Dural, Epping Galston, Glenhaven, Glenorie, Glenwood, Kellyville, Kellyville Ridge, Kenthurst,Kings Langley, North Rocks, Pennant Hills, Round Corner, Rouse Hill, Thompsons Corner, Seven Hills, West Pennant Hills and Winston Hills. [1]
It should be noted that the Local Government Authority that comprises "the heart" of the notional region is a member of WSROC a grouping which characterises itself as "Greater Western Sydney" region.
Land grants in the district were made shortly after settlement began, however much of the district owes its development to the construction of the railway line between Strathfield and Hornsby, which wasn't declared open until 17th September 1886, some 15 years before Federation, and almost a century after land grants were first made in the area. [2]
At present, the district boasts Sydney's largest cinema complex, spanning both the Castle Hill Piazza and Castle Towers.[3]

The area is notable for the fact that it has the highest rate of religious service attendance in Australia . Many religious denominations and belief systems are represented throughout the district, including, notably, the Mormon's Sydney Australia Temple in Carlingford, the Hillsong Church situated in Norwest Business Park. As with other urban regional areas in Australia there are numerous other places of worship catering to a wide range of belief systems including Anglican, Baptist, Buddhist, Hindu, Uniting, Chinese Christian, Islamic, Spiritualist, Roman Catholic and Sikh.

Hills District (Sydney) Religion
Observations and figures provided regarding housing and financial well-being, age distribution in the population, and religious attendance have led to a stereotype of the residents of the Hills District as docile, elderly, upper-middle class conservatives.

Hills District (Sydney) Stereotype In Popular Culture
The Hills District boasts both State Transit services and a number of private services.
The train network spans five CityRail network train stations, encompassing sections of the Northern Line, the Carlingford Line, and the Newcastle & Central Coast Line, including the western terminus of the Epping to Chatswood line.
An extensive list of bus services operate in the district, including Westbus, HillsBus, Harris Park Bus, CityBus Direct, Busways, Glenorie Bus Company, and Sydney Buses.

Public Transport Network
The district is home to 53 primary schools, 24 secondary schools, one TAFE college and numerous pre-schools and kindergartens, including both public and private systems, and selective schools. [4]

The area hosts a large number of licensed premises where residents and visitors can obtain alcoholic refreshments, food service, gaming and other entertainment facilities. Notable among such venues are The Mean Fiddler in Rouse Hill and The Bull and Bush in Baulkham Hills, both of which are heritage listed properties.


Monday, December 3, 2007

Arizona Legislature
The Arizona Legislature is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Arizona. It is a bicameral legislature that consists of a lower house, the House of Representatives, and an upper house, the Senate. There are 60 Representatives and 30 Senators. The state legislature meets in the Capitol Complex in the state capital, Phoenix.

Term limits

Arizona State Capitol
Arizona House of Representatives
Arizona Senate

Sunday, December 2, 2007

Chermside, Queensland
Chermside is a suburb on the north side of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Chermside is a key destination along Queensland Transport's future Northern Busway. Chermside is home to Brisbane's largest Westfield shopping centre which now contains a 3 story Myer and a 16 screen cinema complex.
Together with Indooroopilly, in the west; Carindale, in the southeast; and Mount Gravatt, on the south side; the suburb has been described as a mini-CBD.

Saturday, December 1, 2007

Alexander Stepanov

This article is about the key person behind the C++ Standard Template Library. For other notable people named Stepanov, see Stepanov (disambiguation).
Alexander Stepanov (born November 16, 1950 in Moscow) is the key person behind the C++ Standard Template Library, which he started to develop around 1993 while employed at HP Labs. He had earlier been working for Bell Labs close to Andrew Koenig and tried to convince Bjarne Stroustrup to introduce something like Ada Generics in C++. He is currently employed by Adobe Systems. Stepanov is the father of eight grown children and is a grandfather to four.