Wednesday, October 31, 2007

Shortbread is a type of biscuit (cookie) which is traditionally made from one part white sugar, two parts butter, and three parts plain white flour, although other ingredients like ground rice or cornflour are sometimes added to alter the texture. Shortbread is so named because of its crumbly texture (from an old meaning of the word short). The cause of this texture is its high fat content, provided by the butter. The related word "shortening" refers to any fat that may be added to produce a short (crumbly) texture. The term "short" is used in reference to the fact that the fat molecules inhibit the formation of long gluten strands, making it "short".
Shortbread is not to be confused with shortcake, which is similar to shortbread but made using vegetable fat instead of butter, giving it a different texture.

Shortbread Shapes
Shortbread is generally associated with and originated in Scotland, but due to its popularity it is also made in other countries like Denmark, England, Ireland and Sweden. In the latter a popular recipe of it is called "Drömmar", literally meaning "dreams" in English. The Scottish version is the best-known, and Walkers Shortbread Ltd is Scotland's largest food exporter.
Shortbread was chosen as the United Kingdom's representative for Café Europe during the 2006 Austrian Presidency of the European Union.

Tuesday, October 30, 2007

Essex County is a county located in the U.S. state of New York. As of the 2000 census, the population was 38,851. Its name is from the English county of Essex. Its county seat is Elizabethtown.


Vincent Colyer (1825-1888), a successful Nineteenth-century artist and humanitarian, was born in Bloomingdale.
James Renwick, Jr. (1818-1895), a successful Nineteenth-century architect, was born in Bloomingdale.
Johnny Podres (1932- ), Pitcher for Brooklyn Dodgers and 1955 World Series MVP, was born in Witherbee. Notable people, past and present
Essex County is in the northeastern part of New York State, just west of Vermont along the eastern boundary of the State. The eastern boundary of Essex County is Lake Champlain, which serves as the New York-Vermont border. The highest point in New York, Mount Marcy is in the Town of Keene.
The Ausable River forms a partial northern boundary for the county.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 4,964 km² (1,916 mi²). 4,654 km² (1,797 mi²) of it is land and 310 km² (120 mi²) of it (6.25%) is water.

Adjacent Counties
As of the census² of 2000, there were 38,851 people, 15,028 households, and 9,828 families residing in the county. The population density was 8/km² (22/mi²). There were 23,115 housing units at an average density of 5/km² (13/mi²). The racial makeup of the county was 94.84% White, 2.81% Black or African American, 0.31% Native American, 0.41% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 0.69% from other races, and 0.86% from two or more races. 2.19% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 15,028 households out of which 29.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.20% were married couples living together, 8.90% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.60% were non-families. 28.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.60% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.93.
In the county the population was spread out with 22.80% under the age of 18, 6.90% from 18 to 24, 29.80% from 25 to 44, 24.50% from 45 to 64, and 16.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 107.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 108.60 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $34,823, and the median income for a family was $41,927. Males had a median income of $30,952 versus $22,205 for females. The per capita income for the county was $18,194. 11.60% of the population and 7.80% of families were below the poverty line. 14.50% of those under the age of 18 and 8.60% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.

Essex County, New York Cities, Towns, Villages, and other locations

Essex County Philatelic Cancellations

Monday, October 29, 2007

Cox's Bazar is a major city and district in Bangladesh. It is also one of the world's longest natural sandy sea beaches (120 km) including mud flats. It is located 150 km south of Chittagong. Cox's Bazar is also known by the name "Panowa", the literal translation of which means "yellow flower". Its other old name was "Palongkee". The modern Cox's Bazar derives its name from Captain Cox (died 1798), an army officer serving in British India. It is also one of the fishing ports of Bangladesh.
Often termed as "World's longest sandy sea beach", Cox's Bazar is yet to become a major tourist destination in Asia allegedly due to conservative attitude of local people.

Geography and Climate

Economy and Development
Cox's Bazar, mostly famous for its beautiful sea beach and the sunset, has several other attractions, including:

Aggmeda Khyang [1], a large Buddhist monastery, and a place revered by around 400,000 Buddhist people of Cox's Bazar; and the Chittagong Hill Tracts.
Himchari, located about 12 km south of Cox's Bazar, is a picnic spot and famous for its waterfalls and provid sufficient security for the tourists.Road to Himchari run by the open sea in one side and hills in othes make the journey to Himchari a path of Heaven.
Inani, also 32 km south of Cox's Bazar offers sea bathing.
Laboni Beach is the main beach of Cox's Bazar and is considered the main beach due to the fact that it is closest to the town.
Maheskhali is a small island (268 square kilometres) off the Cox's Bazar coast. The island offers panoramic scenic beauty and is covered by low hills and mangrove forests. Adinath, a temple of Shiva, and a Buddhist pagoda are also located on the island.
Ramu, about 16 km from Cox's Bazar, is a village with sizeable Buddhist population. The village is famous for its handicrafts and homemade cigars.
Sonadia Island, a small island of only 9 square kilometers
Teknaf, a place situated by the side of Naaf river is the southernmost part of Bangladesh. The place is home to several birds and wild animals.
HotelsThe best place to stay in coxbazar may be Hotel "Seagull" or "Hotel Sea Place" with its aesthetic outlook and hospitality feel like in home.Located 500 m close to sea shore and self protected sea beach. Facts
Sunset at Cox's Bazar
Submarine Cable Landing Station
Cox's Bazar Bus Terminal
Cox's Bazar Cox's Bazar Beach
Cox's Bazar Beach
Cox's Bazar Marine Drive
Cox's Bazar Marine Drive

Sunday, October 28, 2007

Matthew Fitt
Matthew Fitt is a Lowland Scots poet and novelist. He was born in 1968 in Dundee, Scotland. Previously writer-in-residence at Greater Pollok in Glasgow, he is currently National Scots Language Development Officer.
In 2002 he and James Robertson founded 'Itchy Coo', a publishing imprint and educational project to reintroduce schoolchildren to the Scots tongue.
His best known work is But'n'Ben A-Go-Go, a cyberpunk novel in Lowland Scots. Earlier works included The Hoose O Haivers, a loose retelling of the Metamorphoses of Ovid in Scots and The Smoky Smirr O Rain, a Scots anthology.
He wrote the lyrics to Icker in a Thrave, the 2007 Scots entry for the "Liet Lavlut" song contest for minority languages in Europe. The tune was written by Simon Thoumire, and the song was performed by Mairi Campbell (singing), Kevin Mackenzie (guitar), Clare McLaughlin (fiddle) and Simon Thoumire (concertina).

Saturday, October 27, 2007

Diet Coke Caffeine-Free
Diet Coke Caffiene-Free was introduced in 1983. It was the first variant of Diet Coke. Like Sprite, no caffiene is included.

Friday, October 26, 2007

Antonio Flores Jijón
Antonio Flores Jijón (23 October 1833 - 30 August 1915) was President of Ecuador 17 August 1888 to 30 June 1892. He was a member of the Progressive Party, a Liberal Catholic party.
Flores Jijón was born in Quito at The Government Palace while his father, General Juan Jose Flores, presided over the nation. During the first presidency of Gabriel García Moreno, Flores Jijón was an ambassador in Paris, London, and Washington. He died in Geneva, Switzerland. He was married to Leonor Ruiz de Apodaca y García-Tienza, a native of Cuba. His vicepresident was Pedró Cevallos Salvador.
Antonio Flores Jijón

Thursday, October 25, 2007

Penang dollar
The dollar was the currency of Penang between 1786 and 1826. It was subdivided into 100 cents, also called pice, and was equal to the Spanish dollar. The dollar was introduced after the East India Company acquired the island in 1786. In 1826, the Indian rupee was declared legal tender in Penang at a value of 48 pice. The dollar again became the currency of Penang with the introduction of the Straits dollar.
Between 1786 and 1788, coins were issued in denominations of 10, ¼ and ½ dollar (silver). Large, tin 1 cent coins were issued between 1800 and 1809, followed by copper ½ and 1 cent in 1810. In 1826, copper ½, 1 and 2 cents coins were issued which were also minted in 1828, after the dollar had been replaced by the rupee.

Wednesday, October 24, 2007

UK railway stations - L
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z  
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z  

Tuesday, October 23, 2007

Afrikaans is a Low Franconian variety, derived from Dutch, mainly spoken in South Africa and Namibia with smaller numbers of speakers in Botswana, Angola, Swaziland, Zimbabwe and Zambia. Due to emigration and migrant labour, there are possibly over 100,000 Afrikaans speakers in the United Kingdom, with other substantial communities found in Brussels, Amsterdam, Perth, Western Australia, Toronto and Auckland. It is the primary language used by two related ethnic groups in South Africa: the Afrikaners and the Coloureds or kleurlinge/bruinmense (including Basters, Cape Malays and Griqua).
Geographically, the Afrikaans language is the majority language of the western one-third of South Africa (Northern and Western Cape, spoken at home by 69% and 58%, respectively). It is also the largest first language in the adjacent southern third of Namibia (Hardap and Karas, where it is the first language of 43% and 41%, respectively). It is the most widely used second language throughout both of these countries for the population as a whole, although the younger generation has better proficiency in English.
Afrikaans originated from the Dutch language. The dialect became known as "Cape Dutch". Later, Afrikaans was sometimes also referred to as "African Dutch" or "Kitchen Dutch", although these terms were mainly pejorative. Afrikaans was considered a Dutch dialect until the late 19th century, when it began to be recognised as a distinct language, and it gained equal status with Dutch and English as an official language in South Africa in 1925. Dutch remained an official language until the new 1961 constitution finally stipulated the two official languages in South Africa to be Afrikaans and English (although, curiously, the 1961 constitution still had a sub-clause stipulating that the word "Afrikaans" was also meant to be referring to the Dutch language). It is the only Indo-European language of significance that developed on the African continent.

There are basically three dialects, of which the northeastern variant (which developed into a literary language in the Transvaal) forms the basis of the written standard. Within the Dutch-speaking zones of the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname, there is greater divergence among the dialects than there is between standard Dutch and standard Afrikaans. Although Afrikaans knows some typical Hollandic tones, there particularly exist striking similarities between Afrikaans and Zeeuws (the dialect of the Zeeland province of the Netherlands which has also similarities with West Flemish). Zeeland is a coastal province of the Netherlands and most of the Dutch spoken in former Dutch colonies is very much influenced by Zeeuws/the Zeeland dialect as many people from Zeeland were involved in The Netherlands' imperial/colonial expansion.

The linguist Paul Roberge suggests that the earliest "truly Afrikaans" texts are doggerel verse from 1795 and a dialogue transcribed by a Dutch traveller in 1825. Printed material among the Afrikaners at first used only standard European Dutch. By the mid-19th century, more and more were appearing in Afrikaans, which was very much still regarded as a set of regional dialects.
In 1861, L.H. Meurant published his Zamenspraak tusschen Klaas Waarzegger en Jan Twyfelaar, which is considered by some to be the first authoritative Afrikaans text. Abu Bakr Effendi also compiled his Arabic Afrikaans Islamic instruction book between 1862 and 1869, although this was only published and printed in 1877. The first Afrikaans grammars and dictionaries were published in 1875 by the Genootskap vir Regte Afrikaners ("Society for Real Afrikaners") in Cape Town.
The First and Second Boer Wars further strengthened the position of the new Dutch-like language. The official languages of the Union of South Africa were English and Dutch until Afrikaans was subsumed under Dutch on 5 May 1925.
The main Afrikaans dictionary is the Woordeboek van die Afrikaanse Taal (WAT), which is as yet incomplete due to the scale of the project, but the one volumed dictionary in household use is the Verklarende Handwoordeboek van die Afrikaanse Taal (HAT). The official orthography of Afrikaans is the Afrikaanse Woordelys en Spelreëls, compiled by the Taalkommissie.

Standardisation of Afrikaans
Afrikaans spelling is simpler than that of Dutch, and its grammar is similar to the same degree that English grammar is simpler than German grammar. Afrikaans also has a more diverse vocabulary, including words of English, Indian, Malay, Malagasy, Khoi, San and Bantu origins. Cape Dutch vocabulary diverged from the Dutch vocabulary spoken in the Netherlands over time as Cape Dutch absorbed words from other European settlers, slaves from East India and Indonesia's Malay, and native African languages. Research by J. A. Heese indicates that as of 1807, 36.8% of the ancestors of the White Afrikaans speaking population were of Dutch ancestry, 35% were German, 14.6% were French and 7.2% non-white (of African and/or Asian origins). (However, Heese's figures are questioned by other researchers.)
Besides vocabulary, the most striking difference between Dutch and Afrikaans is that Afrikaans has a much more regular grammar, which is likely the result of extensive contact with one or more creole languages based on the Dutch language spoken by the relatively large number of non-Dutch speakers (Khoikhoi, German, French, Cape Malay, and speakers of different African languages) during the formation period of the language in the second half of the 17th century. In 1710, slaves outnumbered free settlers, and the language was developing among speakers who had little occasion to write or analyse their new dialect.
Although much of the vocabulary of Afrikaans reflects its origins in 17th century South Hollandic Dutch, it also contains words borrowed from Asian Malay (one of the oldest known Afrikaans texts used Arabic script; see Arabic Afrikaans), Malagasy, Portuguese, French, Khoi and San dialects, English, Xhosa and many other languages. Consequently, many words in Afrikaans are very different from Dutch, as demonstrated by these names of fruits:
* from Malay pisang (via Dutch East Indies history). Piesang (spelt as pisang) is also used colloquially in The Netherlands and in Indonesian Dutch. ** In Malay, nanas = pineapple. *** suur = sour (which is essentially the same as the Dutch word 'zuur'). Lemoen or limoen is also used in standard Dutch where it translates as 'lime', however.

Afrikaans Grammar

Comparison with Dutch and English
Written Afrikaans differs from Dutch in that the spelling reflects a phonetically simplified language, and so many consonants are dropped (see also the grammar section for a description of how consonant dropping affects the morphology of Afrikaans adjectives and nouns). The spelling is also considerably more phonetic than the Dutch counterpart. A notable feature is the indefinite article, which, as noted in the grammar section, is "'n", not "een" as in Dutch. "A book" is "'n boek", whereas in Dutch it would be "een boek". (Note that "'n" is still allowed in Dutch; Afrikaans uses only "'n" where Dutch uses it next to "een". When letters are dropped an apostrophe is mandatory. Note that this " 'n" is usually pronounced as a weak vowel (like the Afrikaans "i") and is not as a consonant.
Other features include the use of 's' instead of 'z', and therefore, 'South Africa' in Afrikaans is written as Suid-Afrika, whereas in Dutch it is Zuid-Afrika. (This accounts for .za being used as South Africa's internet top level domain.) The Dutch letter 'IJ' is written as 'Y', except where it replaces the Dutch suffix —lijk, as in waarschijnlijk = waarskynlik. It is interesting to note that the use of the hard "k" is analogous to the pronunciation in parts of Flanders, which was once part of the United Provinces, and whence many Afrikaners came. Also noteworthy is that, although the first 90 Afrikaner settlers came from Haarlem in the Northern Netherlands, the majority of the population of that city at that time consisted of Southern Dutch immigrants.
The letters c, q and x are rarely seen in Afrikaans, and words containing them are almost exclusively borrowings from French, English, Greek or Latin. This is usually because words which had c and ch in the original Dutch are spelt with k and g repectively in Afrikaans (in many dialects of Dutch (including the Hollandic ones), a ch is spoken as a g, which explains the use of the g in Afrikaans language). Similarly original qu and x are spelt kw and ks respectively. For example ekwatoriaal instead of "equatoriaal" and ekskuus instead of "excuus".
Afrikaans uses 26 letters, just like English. Although it makes use of various diacritics to modify a letter: è, é, ê, ë, î, ï, ô, û, these should not however be regarded as special characters in addition to the 26 normal letters and may, indeed, be replaced by their normal equivalents in cases where it is impractical or impossible to use the diacritics (as in ASCII computer terminals — It is, however, considered erroneous to replace the letters where conditions do not necessitate it).
ʼn is regarded as two separate characters, and the "n" in 'n may never be written in upper case. When used at the beginning of a sentence, the second word's first letter should be capitalised. ʼn is the Afrikaans equivalent of the English "a/an," e.g. 'n Man loop ver or A man walks far.

Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. See International Phonetic Alphabet for a pronunciation key.
Afrikaans is a very centralised language, meaning that most of the vowels are pronounced in a very centralised (i.e. very schwa-like) way. There are many different dialects and different pronunciations — but the transcription should be fairly standard.
An interesting sentence having the same meaning and written (but not pronounced) identically in Afrikaans and English is:
Similarly the sentence:
has almost identical meaning in Afrikaans and English although the Afrikaans warm corresponds more closely in meaning to English hot and Dutch heet (Dutch warm corresponds to English warm, but is closer to Afrikaans in pronunciation).
Another interesting play on words:

Hallo! Hoe gaan dit? [ɦaləu ɦu xaˑn dət] Hello! How are you?
Baie goed, dankie. [bajə xuˑt danki] Very well, thanks.
Praat jy/u Afrikaans? [prɑˑt jəi afrikɑˑns] Do you speak Afrikaans?
Praat jy/u Engels? [prɑˑt jəi ɛŋəls] Do you speak English?
Ja. [jɑˑ] Yes.
Nee. [neˑə] No.
'n Bietjie. [ə biki] A little.
Wat is jou/u naam? [vat əs jəu nɑˑm] What is your name?
Die kinders praat Afrikaans. [di kənərs prɑˑt afrikɑˑns] The children speak Afrikaans.
My pen was in my hand. ([məi pɛn vas ən məi hɑnt])
My hand is in warm water. ([məi hɑnt əs ən varəm vɑˑtər])
Baie koud! [bajə kəʊt] It is very cold!
Buy a coat!
Baie dankie! Thank you very much!
Buy a donkey! Afrikaans phrases
Afrikaans is the first language of approximately 60% of South Africa's "Whites", and over 90% of the "Coloured" (mixed-race) population. Large numbers of "black" South Africans, Indians, and English-speaking whites (Anglo-Africans) also speak it as a second language. Some state that Afrikaanses should be used as a term for all people who speak Afrikaans, irrespective of ethnic origin, instead of "Afrikaners", which refers to an ethnic group, or "Afrikaanssprekendes" (lit. people that speak Afrikaans). Linguistic identity has not yet established that one term be favoured above another and all three are used in common parlance. argue that the primary cause of the uprising was one specific aspect of the government's language instruction decision: that non-White (i.e., Black, Coloured and Indian) South African children be denied instruction in all but the most basic topics of mathematics, sciences, fine arts, etc. The government justified this policy by claiming that non-White South Africans would never have an occasion to use such knowledge; see History of South Africa.
Under South Africa's democratic Constitution of 1996, Afrikaans remains an official language, and has equal status to English and nine other languages. The new policy means that the use of Afrikaans is now often reduced in favour of English, or to accommodate the other official languages. In 1996, for example, the South African Broadcasting Corporation reduced the amount of television airtime in Afrikaans, while South African Airways dropped its Afrikaans name Suid-Afrikaanse Lugdiens from its livery. Similarly, South Africa's diplomatic missions overseas now only display the name of the country in English and their host country's language, and not in Afrikaans.
In spite of these moves (which have upset many Afrikaans speakers), the language has remained strong, with Afrikaans newspapers and magazines continuing to have large circulation figures. Indeed the Afrikaans language general interest family magazine Huisgenoot, has the largest readership of any magazine in the country. In addition, a pay-TV channel in Afrikaans called KykNet was launched in 1999, and an Afrikaans music channel, MK89, in 2005. A large number of Afrikaans books also continue to be published every year. Afrikaans music is also flourishing.
Afrikaans still shares approximately 85 percent of its vocabulary with Dutch, and Afrikaans speakers are able to learn Dutch within a comparatively short period of time. Native Dutch speakers pick up Afrikaans even more quickly, due to its simplified grammar, and Afrikaans speakers can learn a Dutch accent with little training. This has enabled Dutch companies to outsource their call centre operations to South Africa [2].
Afrikaans has two monuments erected in its honour. The first was erected in Burgersdorp, South Africa, in 1893, and the second, more well-known Afrikaans Language Monument (Afrikaanse Taalmonument) was built in Paarl, South Africa, in 1975. The South African filmmaker, Jamie Uys, made a documentary feature film on the rise of the Afrikaner and the development of the language entitled "Doodkry Is Min" (They Can't Oppress Us). It had its premiere at the Voortrekker Monument in Pretoria in 1961 and copies are preserved at the National Film, Video and Sound Archives.

Afrikaans Sociolinguistics

Aardklop Arts Festival
Arabic Afrikaans
List of Afrikaans language poets
List of English words of Afrikaans origin
Afrikaans speaking population in South Africa
South African Translators' Institute See also

Roberge, P. T., 2002. Afrikaans - considering origins, in Language in South Africa, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom. ISBN 0-521-53383-X
South African Afrikaans: History |Slang General

Litnet - Literature, culture and debate
Die Knoop - A very large list of links to Afrikaans websites - A popular multi-user blog
The New South African - Afrikaans - More about South Africa's official languages. - A popular multi-user blog Organisations - Spell checker for Microsoft Office
WSpel - Spell checker for Microsoft Word - Spell checker for, Mozilla Firefox and Mozilla Thunderbird

Monday, October 22, 2007

For other Navy ships of the same name, see USS Abraham Lincoln.
Coordinates: 47°58′55.15″N, 122°13′39.94″W
USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72), nicknamed "Abe", is the fifth Nimitz-class supercarrier in the United States Navy. She is the second Navy ship named after former president Abraham Lincoln. Her home port is Everett, Washington.

USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) Construction
Abraham Lincoln was transferred to the Pacific, in September 1990. Her maiden Western Pacific deployment came unexpectedly on 28 May 1991 in response to Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm.
While heading toward the Indian Ocean, the ship was diverted to support evacuation operations after Mount Pinatubo erupted on Luzon island in the Philippines. In support of Operation Fiery Vigil, Lincoln led a 23-ship armada that moved over 45,000 people from the Subic Bay Naval Station to the port of Cebu in the Visayas. It was the largest peacetime evacuation of active military personnel and their families in history.
After Fiery Vigil, Lincoln steamed toward the Persian Gulf, to run reconnaissance and combat air patrols in Iraq and Kuwait, assisting allied and US troops involved with Desert Storm.
In early 1992, the ship supported Operation Southern Watch, the United Nations-sanctioned "no fly zone" over southern Iraq.
In October 1993, the carrier was ordered to the coast of Somalia to assist UN humanitarian operations. For four weeks, Abraham Lincoln flew air patrols over Mogadishu in support of Operation Restore Hope.
Abraham Lincoln was to be the first carrier to integrate female aviators into the crew after the Combat Exclusion Laws were lifted on 28 April 1993. The ship left San Diego on 24 October 1994, to begin refresher training. The next day, Lieutenant Kara Spears Hultgreen, first female F-14 Tomcat pilot, died when her plane crashed into the sea on final approach due to a combination of engine malfunction and pilot error.
Abraham Lincoln's third deployment began in April 1995 when Lincoln was sent to the Persian Gulf, where the ship assisted in Southern Watch and in Operation Vigilant Sentinel.
Abraham Lincoln began a fourth deployment in June 1998. Once again, the ship headed for the Persian Gulf in support of Southern Watch. The ship spent three months in the gulf during one of the hottest summers in recent years. Temperatures on the flight deck were reported at 150 degrees Fahrenheit (66 °C).
In 1999 the ship participated in several internal Navy exercises and underwent an upkeep at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard in Bremerton, Wash.

2000 to date

The Abraham Lincoln is one of the vessels commonly associated with a famous naval anecdote, in which a stubborn ship's captain, in his ignorance, attempts to persuade what turns out to be a lighthouse off the coast of Newfoundland to change course. This urban legend continually resurfaces and remains a popular subject in joke emails still forwarded around the internet, despite no evidence existing to support the events it describes. Many such emails claim this occurrence took place on 16 October 1997, even though the story appears to have been circulating in some form or other many years previous.
In Tom Clancy's novel Debt of Honor (1994), Abraham Lincoln is one of two carriers sent to protect Sri Lanka from the Indian Navy.
In Tom Clancy's novel Executive Orders (1996), Abraham Lincoln is one of two carriers moved to China to establish a U.S. presence after an airliner is shot down.
In the movie The Core (2003), Abraham Lincoln makes an appearance in a search-and-rescue mission; while not mentioned by name, "CVN-72" caps are readily apparent in scenes on the bridge.
The 2005 movie Stealth features a trio of US Navy pilots that are assigned to Abraham Lincoln.
In Ted Bell's novel Pirate, a new plane is launched from the Abraham Lincoln, fails to launch and falls overboard.
In Spock's Beard's song "Crack the Big Sky" it is referenced in the line "Light the light's on Lincoln's Lake".
In Transformers the Abraham Lincoln is shown as part of the force mobilised to combat the suspected threat to the US. Whilst not mentioned, the deck number is clearly recognisable.

Sunday, October 21, 2007

Cognitive psychology
Abnormal Biological Cognitive Developmental Emotion Evolutionary Legal Neuropsychology Personality Positive Psychophysics Social Transpersonal
Clinical Educational Forensic Health Industrial/Org Sport
Publications Topics Therapies
Brain-computer interfacesBrain damage Brain regionsClinical neuropsychology Cognitive neuroscienceHuman brain Mind and BrainNeuroanatomy NeurophysiologyPhrenology Popular misconceptions arousalattention concentrationconsciousness decision-makingexecutive functions languagelearningmemory motor coordinationperception planningproblem solving thinking Arthur L. BentonAntonio DamasioKenneth Heilman Phineas GageNorman GeschwindElkhonon Goldberg Donald HebbAlexander LuriaMuriel D. LezakBrenda Milner Karl PribramOliver Sacks Roger Sperry
Bender-Gestalt Test Benton Visual Retention Test Clinical Dementia Rating Continuous Performance Task Hayling and Brixton tests Lexical decision task Mini mental state examination Stroop task Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Glasgow Coma Score Wisconsin card sorting task
Cognitive psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. It had its foundations in the Gestalt psychology of Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Köhler, and Kurt Koffka, and in the work of Jean Piaget, who studied intellectual development in children. Cognitive psychologists are interested in how people understand, diagnose, and solve problems, concerning themselves with the mental processes which mediate between stimulus and response. Cognitive theory contends that solutions to problems take the form of algorithms—rules that are not necessarily understood but promise a solution, or heuristics—rules that are understood but that do not always guarantee solutions. In other instances, solutions may be found through insight, a sudden awareness of relationships.

Knowledge representation
Numerical cognition

Attention and Filter theories (the ability to focus mental effort on specific stimuli whilst excluding other stimuli from consideration)
Pattern recognition (the ability to correctly interpret ambiguous sensory information)
Object recognition
Time sensation (awareness and estimation of the passage of time)
Category induction and acquisition
Categorical judgement and classification
Category representation and structure
Similarity (psychology)
Aging and memory
Autobiographical memory
Constructive memory
Emotion and memory
Episodic memory
False memories
Flashbulb memory
List of memory biases
Long-term memory
Semantic memory
Spaced repetition
Source monitoring
Working memory
Mental imagery
Propositional encoding
Imagery versus proposition debate
Dual-coding theories
Mental models
Grammar and linguistics
Phonetics and phonology
Language acquisition
Choice (see also: Choice theory)
Concept formation
Decision making
Judgment and decision making
Logic, formal and natural reasoning
Problem solving See also

Important publications in cognitive psychology

Saturday, October 20, 2007

District Courts of Scotland
Scots law Flag of ScotlandDistrict Courts of Scotland This article is part of the series: Courts of Scotland
Scottish Executive Justice Department

Cabinet Secretary for Justice
Scottish Court Service

College of Justice
Scottish Criminal Cases Review Commission
Scottish Prison Service
Civil courts
Privy Council
House of Lords
Court of Session

Lord President
Lords of Session
Sheriff Court

Criminal courts
High Court of Justiciary

Lord Justice-General
Lords Commissioner of Justiciary
Sheriff Court

Sheriff Principal
District Court

Justice of the Peace
Special courts
Court of the Lord Lyon

Lord Lyon King of Arms
Children's Hearings
Criminal justice
Lord Advocate

Crown Office
Advocate Depute
Procurator Fiscal
Advocates and solicitors
Faculty of Advocates

Law Society of Scotland

A District Court is the lowest level of court in Scotland. It deals mainly with minor offences and they operate under summary procedure.

In Glasgow where the volume of business requires the employment of three solicitors as "stipendiary magistrates" who sit in place of the lay Justices. The Stipendiary Magistrates' court has the same sentencing power as the summary Sheriff Court.

Friday, October 19, 2007

Old-time music is a form of North American folk music, with roots in the folk music of many countries, including England, Scotland and Ireland, as well as the continent of Africa. This musical form developed along with various North American folk dances, such as square dance. The genre also encompasses ballads and other types of folk songs. It is played on acoustic instruments, generally centering on a combination of fiddle and plucked string instruments (most often the guitar and/or banjo).

With its origins in the traditional musics of Europe and Africa, old-time music represents perhaps the oldest form of North American traditional music other than Native American music, and thus the term "old-time" is an appropriate one. As a label, however, it dates back only to 1923.
Fiddlin' John Carson made some of the very first commercial recordings of traditional American country music for the Okeh label. The recordings became hits. Okeh, which had previously coined the terms "hillbilly music" to describe Appalachian and Southern fiddle-based and religious music and "race recording" to describe the music of African American recording artists, began using "old-time music" as a term to describe the music made by artists of Carson's style. The term, thus, originated as a euphemism, but proved a suitable replacement for other terms that were considered disparaging by many inhabitants of these regions. It remains the term preferred by performers and listeners of the music. It is sometimes referred to as "old-timey" or "mountain music" by long-time practitioners.

The term "old-time"
During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, minstrel, Tin Pan Alley, gospel, and other popular music forms also entered the genre. While old-time music was practiced in all regions of the United States in the 18th and 19th centuries, by the 20th century it had come to be associated primarily with the Appalachian region.

Other sources
Old-time music experienced a great revival in the early 1960s in areas such as Chapel Hill, North Carolina. Alan Jabbour, founding director of the Folklife Center at the Library of Congress, became a leader of this revival while a student at Duke University. Other important revivalists include Mike Seeger and Pete Seeger, who brought the music to New York City as early as the 1940s. The New Lost City Ramblers in particular took the revival across the country and often featured older musicians in their show. The band was originally Mike Seeger, John Cohen, and Tom Paley. When Tom left the band, he was replaced by Tracy Schwarz. Many of the musicians on the scene now acknowledge that it was because of the New Lost City Ramblers that they became interested in old-time music.

Old-time music is played using a wide variety of stringed instruments. The instrumentation of an old-time group is often determined solely by what instruments are available, as well as by tradition. The most common instruments are acoustic string instruments. Historically, the fiddle was nearly always the leading melodic instrument, and in many instances (if no other instruments were available) dances were accompanied only by a single fiddler, who often also acted as dance caller.
By the early 19th century, the banjo (an instrument of West African origin originally played only by people of African descent, both enslaved and free) had become an essential partner to the fiddle, particularly in the southern United States. The banjo, originally a fretless instrument and frequently made from a gourd, played the same melody as the fiddle (though in a lower register), while simultaneously providing a rhythmic accompaniment incorporating a high drone provided by the instrument's short "drone string." The banjo used in old-time music is typically a 5-string model with an open back (i.e., without the resonator found on most bluegrass banjos).
Today old-time banjo players most commonly utilize the clawhammer style, but there were originally several other styles, most of which are still in use, loosely grouped by region. The major styles were clawhammer (which also went by a number of regional names), two-finger index lead (also called "North Carolina picking"), two-finger thumb lead (Kentucky), and a three-finger "fiddle style" that seems to have been influenced in part by late-19th century urban classical style. Generally, a young player would learn whatever style a parent or older sibling favored.
Because playing with more fingers meant being able to put in more notes, three-finger styles intrigued many players. Individualistic three-finger styles were developed independently by such important figures as Uncle Dave Macon, Dock Boggs, and Snuffy Jenkins. Those early three-finger styles, especially the technique developed by Jenkins, led in the 1940s to the three-finger Scruggs style created by Earl Scruggs and which helped advance the split between old-time and the solo-centric style that would become known as bluegrass. Jenkins developed a three-finger "roll" that, while obviously part of the old-time tradition, inspired Scruggs to develop his smoother, faster, more complex rolls that are now standard fare in bluegrass music.
During the 19th and early 20th centuries, other stringed instruments began to be added to the fiddle-banjo duo; these included the guitar, mandolin, and double bass (or washtub bass), which provided chordal and bass line accompaniment (or occasionally melody also). Such an assemblage, of whatever instrumentation, became known simply as a "string band." Occasionally the cello, piano, hammered dulcimer, Appalachian dulcimer, tenor banjo, tenor guitar, mouth bow, or other instruments were used, as well as such non-string instruments as the jug, harmonica, Jew's harp, concertina, accordion, washboard, spoons, or bones.
The fiddle is sometimes played by two people at the same time, with one player using the bow and fingers, while another player stands to the side and taps out a rhythm on the fiddle strings using small sticks called fiddlesticks (also spelled "fiddle sticks"). This technique (also sometimes called "beating the straws") is utilized in performance most notably by the duo of Al and Emily Cantrell.[1][2]

Instrumental old-time music is traditionally played for dances, and is considered to be dance music. As such, there is not much showiness, generally with no solos, but always carrying a strong beat. This contrasts with bluegrass music which was developed in the 1940s as a form of concert music. Bluegrass music, however, developed from old-time music, and shares many of the same songs and instruments, but is more oriented toward solo performance than is old-time music.
While in the British Isles reels and jigs both remain popular, the reel is by far the predominant metric structure preferred by old-time musicians in the United States (though a few hornpipes are also still performed). Canadian musicians, particularly in the Maritime provinces where the Scottish influence is strong, perform both reels and jigs (as well as other types of tunes such as marches and strathspeys).
Each regional old-time tradition accompanies different dance styles. Some of these include clogging and flatfoot dancing (Appalachia), contradancing (New England), square dancing (Southern states) and step dancing (Nova Scotia, particularly Cape Breton Island), though there is some overlap between regions.

Old-time music as dance music
Players traditionally learn old-time music by ear; even those musicians who can read music generally learn and play old-time tunes by ear. A broad selection of written music does exist, although many believe that the style of old-time music cannot be practically notated by written music. This is in part because there are many regional and local variations to old-time tunes, and because some of the most noted players often improvised and wouldn't play a tune exactly the same way every time.
Players usually learn old-time music by attending local jam sessions and by attending festivals scattered around the country. With the spread of broad-band Internet, more and more old-time recordings are available via small publishers, boutique Web sites, Internet streaming audio ("Web radio"), and small Web sites making the music more accessible.
Although it is one of the oldest and most prominent forms of traditional music in the United States and Canada, old-time music (with a few notable exceptions) is generally not taught in North American primary schools, secondary schools, or universities. Although square dancing is still occasionally taught in elementary schools (generally with recorded, rather than live music), old-time instruments and dances are not included in the educational system, and must be studied outside the school system.
There are, however a growing number of folk music schools in the United States, usually non-profit community based, that have taken up the mantle of providing instruction in old-time music. The Old Town School of Folk Music in Chicago, Illinois is perhaps the oldest of these, having begun in 1957. The Folk School of St. Louis[3], Missouri is one of the many newer schools having opened its doors in 2002 after the movie "O Brother Where Art Thou" caused an increase in people from urban areas wanting to learn old-time music. These schools and the subsequent music communities that spring from them offer a positive trend in keeping old-time music alive.
There are a variety of programs, mostly in the summer, that offer week-long immersions in old-time music and dance. These camps are family friendly and allow beginners to enter into the tradition and more advanced players to hone their sound with instruction from some of the best in the music.

Appalachian folk music Learning old-time music
There are numerous regional styles of old-time music, each with its own repertoire and playing style. Nevertheless, some tunes (such as "Soldier's Joy") are found in nearly every regional style, though played somewhat differently in each.

Regional styles
This section applies primarily to the "Southern Appalachian" region of the United States (the Central Appalachians being in the northeastern U.S. and the Northern Appalachians stretching into Quebec, Canada).
Appalachian folk music is a distinctive genre of folk music. Appalachian music is believed to have developed from traditional Scottish, English and Irish music brought to the United States by immigrants from those countries, and in turn it influenced country music and old-time music.
A Scottish fiddler named Neil Gow is usually credited with developing (during the 1740s) the short bow sawstroke technique that defines Appalachian fiddling. This technique was altered during the next century, with European waltzes and polkas being most influential.
While in the year 2000 African Americans made up only 8 percent of the Appalachian population[4], their numbers were greater in the 19th and early 20th centuries, due not only to the presence of slaves but also free blacks working in timber, coal mining, and other industries. Their considerable influence on Appalachian music can be seen in instrumentation: the banjo was adopted from African Americans by white musicians following the Civil War. Even into the early 20th century, it was common for young white musicians to have learned the banjo or other instruments from older African American musicians living in their area. Their influence can also be felt in the ornamentation of old-time music which includes the third and seventh blue notes, and sliding tones. Sliding tones are not found in British Isles folk music outside of certain styles of Irish music, whose influence on Appalachian music is considered minimal (this may be indicative of parallel evolution since the early Appalachian settlers were generally not of Irish extraction).
Appalachian folk became a major influence on styles like country music and bluegrass. It is one of the few regional styles of old-time music that, since World War II, has been learned and widely practiced in all areas of the United States (as well as in Canada, Europe, Australia, and elsewhere). In some cases (as in the Midwest and Northeast), its popularity has eclipsed the indigenous old-time traditions of these regions. There is a particularly high concentration of performers playing Appalachian folk music on the East and West Coasts (especially in New York City, Los Angeles, San Francisco, and the Pacific Northwest). A number of American classical composers, in particular Henry Cowell and Aaron Copland, have composed works that merge the idioms of Appalachian folk music with the Old World–based classical tradition.
Appalachian old-time music is itself made up of regional traditions. Some of the most prominent traditions include those of Mount Airy, North Carolina (specifically the Round Peak style of Tommy Jarrell) and Grayson County/Galax, Virginia (Wade Ward and Albert Hash), West Virginia (the Hammons Family), East Kentucky (J. P. Fraley and Lee Sexton), and East Tennessee (Roan Mountain Hilltoppers).
The banjo player and fiddler Bascom Lamar Lunsford, a native of the North Carolina mountains, collected much traditional music during his lifetime, also founding the old-time music festival in Asheville, North Carolina. Notable North Carolina traditional banjo players and makers include Frank Proffitt, Frank Proffitt, Jr. and Stanley Hicks, who all learned to make and play fretless mountain banjos from a family tradition. These players, among others, learned their art primarily from family and show fewer traces of influence from commercial hillbilly recordings. The Proffitts and Hicks were heirs to a centuries-old folk tradition, and through the middle to late 20th century and they continued to perform in a style older than the stringbands often associated with old time music. Their style has been recently emulated by contemporary musician Tim Eriksen.
Old-time music has also been adopted by a few Native American musicians; the eminent Walker Calhoun of Big Cove, in the Qualla Boundary (home to the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, just outside the Great Smoky Mountains National Park in western North Carolina) plays three-finger-style banjo, to which he sings in the Cherokee language.

"Big Eyed Rabbit" (file info) — play in browser (beta)

  • Matokie Slaughter, "Big Eyed Rabbit" from Clawhammer Banjo, Volume Two (County Records) (c. 1960s)
    Problems listening to the file? See media help. Appalachia
    The New England states, being among the first to be settled by Europeans, have one of the oldest traditions of old-time music. Although the Puritans (the first Europeans to settle in the region), frowned upon instrumental music, dance music flourished in both urban and rural areas beginning in the 17th century. Primary instruments include the fiddle, piano, and guitar, with the wooden flute sometimes also used. As with Appalachian folk, a number of classical composers have turned to New England folk music for melodic and harmonic ideas, most famously Charles Ives, as well as Aaron Copland, William Schuman, and John Cage, among others.

    The Southern states (particularly coastal states such as Virginia and North Carolina) also have one of the oldest traditions of old-time music in the United States.
    It is in this region that the music of Africa mixed most strongly with that of the British Isles. Records show that many African slaves (some of whom had been musicians in Africa or the Caribbean, where they had lived prior to the United States) were talented musicians, playing, as early as the 18th century, instruments such as the fiddle, banjo, and piano. Slave documents and advertisements of the time often listed musical abilities of individual African slaves as a selling point, as slaves were frequently asked to perform for their masters.
    The banjo, an essential instrument for Southern and Appalachian old-time music, is believed to have derived from a West African skin-covered lute; such instruments (generally with four strings) are still played today in Senegal, Gambia, Mali, and Guinea, where they are called ngoni, xalam, or various other names.
    States of the Deep South such as Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia, and Louisiana also have their own regional old-time music traditions and repertoires. Premier old time banjoist Bob Carlin has authored String Bands in the North Carolina Piedmont with a focus on non-Appalachian styles in that state. While the music of the Louisiana Cajuns has much in common with other North American old-time traditions it is generally treated as a tradition unto itself and not referred to as a form of old-time music.

    Appalachian folk music The non-Appalachian South
    Texas developed a distinctive twin-fiddling tradition that was later popularized by Bob Wills as "Western swing" music. Fiddle music has also been popular since the 19th century in other Western states such as Oklahoma and Colorado. The National Oldtime Fiddlers' Contest has been held each year in Weiser, Idaho since 1953.
    Oklahoma, with its high concentration of Native American inhabitants, has produced some Native American old-time string bands, most notably Big Chief Henry's Indian String Band (consisting of Henry Hall, fiddle; Clarence Hall, guitar; and Harold Hall, banjo and voice), which was recorded by H. C. Speir for the Victor company in 1929.

    Texas and the West
    Among the prominent styles of old-time music in Canada are the Scottish-derived tradition of Nova Scotia (particularly Cape Breton Island), the French Canadian music of Quebec and Acadia, the old-time music of Ontario, and the prairie fiddling traditions of the [[Western Canada|central-western provinces. It is here (primarily in Manitoba and Saskatchewan) that the fiddle tradition of the Métis people is found. The traditional folk music of Newfoundland and Labrador, though similar in some ways to that of the rest of Atlantic Canada, has a distinct style of its own, and is generally considered a separate genre.

    The current old-time music scene is alive and well, it's possible the interest has been sparked in recent years through the combined exposure resulting from several prominent films, more accessible depositories of source mateial and the hard work of a few of touring bands, including the Foghorn Stringband, the Wilders and The Forge Mountain Diggers. There are a handful of masterful solo musicians performing currently. These include fiddlers Brad Leftwich, Bruce Molsky, Rhys Jones, Dirk Powell, Rayna Gellert, banjo players Paul Brown and Riley Baugus, and guitar players/singers Alice Gerrard, Martha Scanlon, Carrie Fridley, Thomas Bailey and Beverly Smith. Other even younger musicians include Stephanie Coleman, Greg Burgular & Matt Brown who are at the vanguard of a new generation of talented old-time musicians currently on the performing circuit. Living elders of the music include Benton Flippen of Mount Airy, North Carolina and Clyde Davenport of Monticello, Kentucky.

    Contemporary musicians


    Bluegrass music
    Folk music
    Category:Old-time musicians
    Category:Old-time bands See also

    Appalachian Journey (1990). Original material recorded and directed by Alan Lomax. A Dibbs Directions Production for Channel Four TV in association with Alan Lomax. Presented by North Carolina Public TV. 1991 videocassette release of an episode from the 1990 television series American Patchwork: Songs and Stories of America.
    My Old Fiddle: A Visit with Tommy Jarrell in the Blue Ridge (1994). Directed by Les Blank. El Cerrito, California: Flower Films. ISBN 0-933621-61-2.
    New England Fiddles (1995). Produced and directed by John M. Bishop. A Media Generation production. Montpelier, Vermont: Distributed by Multicultural Media.
    Songcatcher (dir. Maggie Greenwald, 2000) is a film about a musicologist researching Appalachian folk music in western North Carolina.
    Sprout Wings and Fly (1983). Produced and directed by Les Blank, CeCe Conway, and Alice Gerrard. El Cerrito, California: Flower Films. ISBN 0933621019
    O Brother, Where Art Thou? (2000). Produced by Ethan Coen, Working Title Films, Studio Canal. Directed by Joel Coen. Audio